Drainage System And Its Significance

Drainage System And Its Significance

Drainage is the disposal of extra water on land (either used or in type of storm water). It should be distinguished from flood control which is the prevention of damage because of overflow from river. There are two type of system adopted for waste water collection. Separate sanitary and combined system. In separate sanitary system, there is a separate sewer that collects the household, commercial and industrial waste water and disposes them while a separate sewer collects the storm water and disposes it separately. In the combined system, both the storm water and home water are conveyed through the same pipe network.

Sanitary sewers should have a self cleansing velocity of (.6-1
m/s). This self cleansing velocity is achieved by laying the drain on a steep slope. Manholes should be positioned at interval of 100-120m for the purpose of maintaining and servicing of the sewer. It must be noted that waste water within the sewer are often transported by gravitational force slightly than mechanical means (pumping) for convenient sake. This is why in laying sewer pipes; the topography of the realm ought to be well understood.

The storm water flow can be estimated by .278CIA where C is the coefficient of runoff, I is the rainfall intensity and A is the catchment area. C is normally got from table which is a function of factors that have an effect on infiltration. From rainfall data I can be estimated.
A could be estimated through the use of planimeter or superimposing scaled grid paper on the map and note the grid that fall within the boundary of the map . The waste water from trade, commercial facilities and domestic makes use of are normally estimated by knowing the quantity of waste water the customers' discharges through the usage of questionnaire and personal interview. The population of individuals and number of industries should be noted for this estimation.

The general steps in layout sewers embrace:

Set up complete map of the area including road contour, topography and utilities
Drains are shown with a single line with arrows for direction
Manholes are shown with a dot in any respect its needed locations because the junctions and its intermediate level of 100-120m interval
Sewers are design to observe natural topography
Sewers are principally branch network
Sewers or drains are usually located along the road
Design approach for sewers is as follows;
Estimate manning constant and choose slope
Compute the part factor
Get the most effective hydraulic part either rectangle or trapezoid
Check the satisfaction of minimal velocity
Addition of adequate freeboard to avoid overflowing
The disposal of the waste water might be treated or not treated. However, the therapy is normally by biological method. The disposal of waste water is of immerse necessary for financial growth. The treated or untreated waste could be used as a source of irrigation, supplement stream or river flow and might be used as a source of recharge for ground water.

It is apparent within the cities of the developing international locations that essentially the most of development industries don't take note of all of the above talked about process. Consequently storm water follows drains that are not specified for them or overflows the drains there by causing erosions. Alternatively, a number of the storm water are stagnant within the drains there by turning into a breeding place for mosquitoes and toads. This might end in enhance of malaria and water associated illness in the vicinity. All this is because; most government in such cities haven't yet understand the essential of drainage systems and the position it performs in social- financial development.

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